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[[http://www.owasp.org/index.php/Web_Application_Penetration_Testing_AoC Up]]<br>
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{{Template:OWASP Testing Guide v4}}
{{Template:OWASP Testing Guide v2}}
 
  
=== Information Gathering ===
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''' 4.2 Information Gathering '''
 
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Every step about security testing needs a first phase oriented to collection of the information necessary for the correct development of penetration test on web applications.<br>
 
This activity can be carried out to search on different sources and with many methods using public tools as search engine, using fictitious requests purposely forged to receive error messages that give back the versions and technologies used for the application or analyzing and discovering the front-end/back-end infrastructure and applications with the purpose to collect many other useful information.<br>
 
Often it’s possible to gather this information by receiving a response from the application targets because there're old and backup files or default bad configurations not changed from administrators on web server.<br>
 
  
''Application Discovery:'' The application discovery testing is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server.<br>
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The first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting as much information as possible about a target application.
This analysis is important because many times there isn't a direct link with the main application and for this reason a discovery analysis is useful to notice every web-app used for administration, old versions or others never deleted and created for a test development phase.<br>
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Information Gathering is the most critical step of an application security test. The security test should endeavour to test as much of the code base as possible. Thus mapping all possible paths through the code to facilitate thorough testing is paramount.
''Spidering and googling:'' This phase of the Information Gathering process consists in a browsing and capturing of the resources find on the web but the operations that are possibile to perform in this analysis consist also in the collection of the information available on the search engines and extractable using the their particular functionalities.<br>
 
''Analisys of error code:''<br>
 
''Infrastructure configuration management testing:''<br>
 
''SSL/TLS Testing:''<br>
 
''DB Listener Testing:''<br>
 
''Application configuration management testing:''<br>
 
''File extensions handling:''<br>
 
''Old file testing:''<br>
 
[[Application Discovery AoC|4.2.1 Application Discovery]]<br>
 
[[Spidering and googling AoC|4.2.2 Spidering and googling]]<br>
 
[[Analisys of error code AoC|4.2.3 Analisys of error code]]<br>
 
[[Infrastructure configuration management testing AoC|4.2.4 Infrastructure configuration management testing]]<br>
 
[[SSL/TLS Testing AoC|4.2.4.1 SSL/TLS Testing]]<br>
 
[[DB Listener Testing AoC|4.2.4.2 DB Listener Testing]]<br>
 
[[Application configuration management testing AoC|4.2.5 Application configuration management testing]]<br>
 
[[File extensions handling AoC|4.2.5.1 File extensions handling]]<br>
 
[[Old file testing AoC|4.2.5.2 Old, backup and unreferenced files]]<br>
 
  
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This task can be carried out in many different ways.
  
[[OWASP Testing Guide v2 Table of Contents]]
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By using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information, e.g., disclosing error messages or revealing the versions and technologies used.<br>
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[[Testing for Application Discovery (OWASP-IG-005)|4.2.5 Application Discovery  (OWASP-IG-005)]] [rename to "Enumerate applications on webserver"]<br>
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Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.<br>
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This analysis is important because often there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend. Discovery analysis can be useful to reveal details such as web applications used for administrative purposes. In addition, it can reveal old versions of files or artifacts such as undeleted, obsolete scripts, crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance.
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[[Testing: Spiders, Robots, and Crawlers  (OWASP-IG-001)|4.2.1 Spiders, Robots and Crawlers (OWASP-IG-001)]] [rename to "Review webserver metafiles" ]
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This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested.
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[[Testing: Review webpage comments and metadata  (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Review webpage comments and metadata(OWASP-IG-00x)]]
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Review the webpage metadata, HTML, JavaScript comments for sensitive information and disabled links/scripts.
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[[Testing: Identify application entry points (OWASP-IG-003)|4.2.3 Identify application entry points  (OWASP-IG-003)]]<br>
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Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.
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[[Testing: Identify application exit/handover points (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Identify application exit/handover points  (OWASP-IG-00x)]]<br>
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Identify the functional exit points of the application and points where the application hands over to another application that may, or may not, be within scope of testing (e.g. handover to a payment gateway).
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[[Testing: Map paths through the application (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Map paths through the application (OWASP-IG-00x)]]<br>
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Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.
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[[Testing for Web Server Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-00x)|4.2.x Testing Web Server Fingerprint  (OWASP-IG-00x)]]<br>
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Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.
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[[Testing for Web Application Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-004)|4.2.4 Testing Web Application Fingerprint  (OWASP-IG-004)]]<br>
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Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.
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[[Testing for Error Codes (OWASP-IG-006)|4.2.6 Analysis of Error Codes  (OWASP-IG-006)]]<br>
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During a penetration test, web applications may divulge information that is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information such as error codes can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.<br>
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In many cases, error codes can be easily invoked without the need for specialist skills or tools, due to bad exception handling design and coding.
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[[Testing: Search engine discovery/reconnaissance (OWASP-IG-002)|4.2.2 Search Engine Discovery/Reconnaissance  (OWASP-IG-002)]]<br>
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Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that have been publicly exposed.
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Clearly, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test. It cannot be as comprehensive as the information possibly gathered by performing a broader infrastructure analysis.

Latest revision as of 05:27, 8 November 2012

This article is part of the new OWASP Testing Guide v4.
Back to the OWASP Testing Guide v4 ToC: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Guide_v4_Table_of_Contents Back to the OWASP Testing Guide Project: https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Testing_Project


4.2 Information Gathering


The first phase in security assessment is focused on collecting as much information as possible about a target application. Information Gathering is the most critical step of an application security test. The security test should endeavour to test as much of the code base as possible. Thus mapping all possible paths through the code to facilitate thorough testing is paramount.

This task can be carried out in many different ways.

By using public tools (search engines), scanners, sending simple HTTP requests, or specially crafted requests, it is possible to force the application to leak information, e.g., disclosing error messages or revealing the versions and technologies used.


4.2.5 Application Discovery (OWASP-IG-005) [rename to "Enumerate applications on webserver"]
Application discovery is an activity oriented to the identification of the web applications hosted on a web server/application server.
This analysis is important because often there is not a direct link connecting the main application backend. Discovery analysis can be useful to reveal details such as web applications used for administrative purposes. In addition, it can reveal old versions of files or artifacts such as undeleted, obsolete scripts, crafted during the test/development phase or as the result of maintenance.

4.2.1 Spiders, Robots and Crawlers (OWASP-IG-001) [rename to "Review webserver metafiles" ] This phase of the Information Gathering process consists of browsing and capturing resources related to the application being tested.

4.2.x Review webpage comments and metadata(OWASP-IG-00x) Review the webpage metadata, HTML, JavaScript comments for sensitive information and disabled links/scripts.

4.2.3 Identify application entry points (OWASP-IG-003)
Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.

4.2.x Identify application exit/handover points (OWASP-IG-00x)
Identify the functional exit points of the application and points where the application hands over to another application that may, or may not, be within scope of testing (e.g. handover to a payment gateway).

4.2.x Map paths through the application (OWASP-IG-00x)
Enumerating the application and its attack surface is a key precursor before any attack should commence. This section will help you identify and map out every area within the application that should be investigated once your enumeration and mapping phase has been completed.

4.2.x Testing Web Server Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-00x)
Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.

4.2.4 Testing Web Application Fingerprint (OWASP-IG-004)
Application fingerprint is the first step of the Information Gathering process; knowing the version and type of a running web server allows testers to determine known vulnerabilities and the appropriate exploits to use during testing.

4.2.6 Analysis of Error Codes (OWASP-IG-006)
During a penetration test, web applications may divulge information that is not intended to be seen by an end user. Information such as error codes can inform the tester about technologies and products being used by the application.
In many cases, error codes can be easily invoked without the need for specialist skills or tools, due to bad exception handling design and coding.

4.2.2 Search Engine Discovery/Reconnaissance (OWASP-IG-002)
Search engines, such as Google, can be used to discover issues related to the web application structure or error pages produced by the application that have been publicly exposed.

Clearly, focusing only on the web application will not be an exhaustive test. It cannot be as comprehensive as the information possibly gathered by performing a broader infrastructure analysis.