CISO AppSec Guide v2: Executive Summary
One of the main responsibilities of CISOs is to make sure policies and standards are in place for protecting the company's assets such confidential data from un-authorized access as well as from integrity and availability perspectives. The scope of compliance with information security policies and standards might also include the security applications and software when these are considered company assets. The scope for compliance with information security policies and standards for applications, systems and software typically depends on the classification of the asset-data stored by the application, the type of exposure of the application to the users (e.g. internet, intranet, extranet) and the risk of the functionality that the application supports with the data (e.g. access to confidential data, transfer of money, payments, users administration etc).
From compliance perspectives, applications, software and servers might need to be in scope for vulnerability assessments to identify and remediate vulnerabilities and application security assessments to validate application security requirements such as the secure design, secure coding and secure operations. These are often part of the goals of application security standards that is SecDevOps managers responsibility to ensure compliance with.
Although compliance might be a critical aspect of application security, and of CISOs responsibilities, it might not be the only one. Application security spans other security domains that CISOs are responsible for. CISOs might designate a SecDevOps manager to manage application security programs as documented application security governance for that role. In general, CISOs management domain can be summarised from the perspective of (GRC) Governance, Risk and Compliance:
- From the governance perspective, CISOs might be responsible for institute application security processes, the roles and responsibilities to manage them including security training and awareness. Training might also include secure coding for software developers, threat modelling for application architects and vulnerability testing for pen testers.
- From the risk management perspective, the risks managed by the CISOs might also include managing application security risks, such as the risks of exploit of gaps in security controls and application vulnerabilities. SecDevOps managers might be responsible for application vulnerability management as well as managing application security throughout the software development life-cycle (SDLC).
- From compliance perspective, compliance with application and software security standards might be among both CISO and SecDevOps managers to manage. Compliance with industry standards (e.g. PCI-DSS) might be one of the reasons for starting an application security programs for the organisation including hiring staff for managing and executing the various application security activities that the program/initiative entails
Part I: How To Initiate Application Security Program(s)
Explain clearly that this is not the start of the program (that need to be created first) but creating awareness in regarding the need to create and start one, create business cases and gain commitments and sponsorship
The Triggers"" There might be different reasons to why a Chief Information Security Officer (CISOs) might consider creating an application security program for the organisation. Elaborate on the evolving threat landscape targeting web applications.. audit, legal and compliance requirements.
Need of creating awareness on application security and software security that is to explain the difference between security built in vs bolt on, the case for proactive (manage issue early in the SDLC) vs reactive (catch and patch or fix when exploited)
The business cases
Sometimes the need for starting an application security initiative need to be articulated as a business case for investing in an application security program. The business case might consist on articulating the benefits on investing in software security and application security during the SDLC as well as necessary to mitigate the possible impact to the business caused by exploit of vulnerabilities in web applications, software products and services. Industry security spending benchmarks and quantitative risk calculations provide support to security investment budget requests.
Need to create awareness of threats targeting applications for online and to compromise data and the business impact.
CISOs need to be real about cyber-threat risks and present to the business the overall picture of information security risks, not just compliance and vulnerabilities, but also security incidents and threat intelligence of threat agents targeting the organization information assets including for applications. The ability to communicate risks to the business empowers CISOs to articulate the business case for application security and justify additional spending in application security measures. This justification needs to consider the economical impact of security incidents compared with the costs of unlawful non compliance. Today's costs to the business due to the economical impacts of security incidents are much higher than the costs of non-compliance and failing audits. Often the severity of the impact of security incidents might costs CISOs their jobs and the company losing reputation and revenues.
Map business priorities to security priorities'
All security priorities must be able to be mapped to business priorities. This is the first step towards establishing the relevance of every security initiative and shows business management how security supports the mission. It also demonstrates to security staff how the staff supports the mission.
Gain Visibility on Organisation Culture and Engineering Processest'
Organisation is not ready yet to start an application security program, where we should put the focus ?. Get visibility and assess company culture by asking the right questions. Identity limitations such as software engineers are not yet trained on software security and maturity of processes (no process, ad-hoc execution, no standards, sporadic use of tools etc)
Follow a strategy such as exploit or create a momentum as opportunity to kick-start application security (can be a security breach or a requirement to comply) focus on company strenghts and leverage resources available
Set realistic expectations of risk reduction , process execution/roll our, development team training and on boarding on tools and technologies, proof of concepts and pilots.
Gain Commitment to Execute and Support The Start Of Application Security Program/Iniative'
Do not forget to get stakeholders (PMs, Developers, IS, Business) buy-in and commitment as the main goal Highlight possible approaches (top down or bottom up) and required commitments
- top down (drive from CEO/business) two months freeze on development, every developer on security training, S-SDLC to be created and executed by all teams and for all projects,
- bottom up (drive is from CISO and SecDevIps Managers) , CISO got commitments from executive management to create the application security initiative and promote a stage by stage execution driven by SecDevOp Manager working together with DevOp managers project managers can commit security champions as resources from business sponsors to commit developers to secure training and demand secure code reviews and testing to be executed in compliance with standards
- engineering leads ask architects to be trained in threat modelling
Part II: How To Create Application Security Program(s)
Creating an an application security program involves planning for the adoption of new application security activities, processes, controls and training. When planning for new application security processes and controls, it is important for CISOs to know on which application security domains to invest, in order for the business to deliver on its missions.
'To build and grow an application security program, CISOs must:
""Create a Roadmap""
- Map business priorities to security priorities
- Assess the current state using a security program maturity model
- Establish the target state using a security program maturity model
- Assess software maturity for processes, training and tools
- Document the software security standards and process (S-SDLC and SecDevOps)
- Document security testing standards
- Plan for adoption of application security tools (SAST, DAST)
- Plan train developers on secure coding and use of tools
- Set goals-objectives and time to reach them as milestones to track
Assess the current state using a security program maturity model'
Accessing process maturity is a prerequisite for adoption of application security and software security processes. One criteria that is often adopted by organizations is to consider the organization's capabilities in application security domains and the maturity of the organization in operating in these domains. Examples of these application security domains include application security governance, vulnerability risk management, regulatory compliance and application security engineering; such as to design and implement secure applications. Specifically in the case of application security engineering, adopting software security assurance is often necessary when there is not direct control on implementing the security of such software since it is produced by a third party vendor. A factor to consider in this case is to measure the software security assurance using a maturity model. A pre-requisite for measuring software security assurance is the adoption of a Secure Software Development Lifecycle (S-SDLC). At high level, S-SDLC consists of embedding "build security in" security activities, training and tools within the SDLC. Examples of these activities might include software security processes/tools such as architectural risk analysis/ threat modeling, secure code reviews/static source code analysis, application security testing/application vulnerability scanning and secure coding for software developers. A reference to OWASP software assurance maturity model as well as to the several OWASP projects dedicated to software security and S-SDLC are provided in this guide as well.
Establish the target state using a security program maturity model
Not all organizations need to be at the highest maturity. The maturity should be at a level that it can manage the security risk that affects the business. Obviously, this varies among organizations and is driven by the business and what it accepts as risk as part of continuous collaboration and transparency from the security organization.
Once a target state is identified, CISOs should build a roadmap that identifies its strategy for addressing known issues as well as detecting and mitigating new risks.
OWASP provides several projects and guidance for CISOs to help develop and implement an application security program. Besides reading this section of the guide, see the Appendix B: Quick Reference to OWASP Guides & Projects for more information on the type of security engineering domain activities that can be incorporated within an application security program.
""Create the software security process (S-SDLC and SecDevOps)"" How to Build Security In the SDLC Articulate SecDevOps and DevSecOps and what entitles to. Building security During Agile and integration of security during CI and CD
Security Requirement Engineering How can be done and when and how and when can be validated
Secure Code Reviews Manual and automated, role of peer reviewers and SAST and DAST
Secure Build Testing Breaking the builds for security
Threat Modelling & Architecture Risk Analysis
A top-down approach to identifying threats and countermeasures, CISOs should consider a threat modeling technique also described in Part III. The threat modeling technique allows the target application to be decomposed to reveal its attack surface and subsequently its relevant threats, associated countermeasures, and finally, its gaps and weaknesses.
Security-Vulnerability Testing From ad-hoc to consistent execution of quality and timing. Lite testing vs Deep Dive Testing Framing threats, attacks and vulnerabilities in test scenarios Test Driven Security
Application Security Tools Articulate when and where in the SDLC to use them (which phase) who need to use and how are deployed including the value that they provide
Emerging Application Security Technologies"" RASP
Software Security Training Articulate for who and what
""Set Objectives and Measure Goals/Milestones"""
- teams trained on software security and threat modelling
- apps/products in scope for vulnerability testing, secure code reviews and static build testing and consistently executed during changes
- secure coding standards documented and adopted
- security requirements are documented and validated with testing during the validation phase
- quality of reports is consistent for level of false positives
- issues are identified and remediated according to compliance time frames
Part III: How to Manage Application Security Program(s)
Articulate process and program execution management vs risk-vulnerability management
Articulate process management CISOs also need metrics to manage and monitor the people, processes, and technologies that make up the application security program. Example metrics for measuring governance, risk and compliance of application security processes are also included.
Security metrics consist of three categories:
- Application security process metrics
- Application security risk metrics
- Security in the SDLC metrics
Application security process metrics
These support informed decisions to decide where to focus the risk mitigation effort and to manage application security risks more effectively. These risk management goals are usually very organization specific and depend on the type of organization and the industry sector that the organization does business with, to decide which application security risks should be prioritized for action.
- How well is the organization meeting security policies, technical standards, and industry practices?
- How consistently are we executing security SLAs? By application? By division? By channel?
Application security risk metrics From the risk management strategic point of view, the mitigation of application security risks is not a one time exercise; rather it is an ongoing activity that requires paying close attention to emerging threats and planning ahead for the deployment of new security measures to mitigate these new threats.
CISOs must prioritize security issues in order to identify areas needing attention first. To make informed decisions on how to manage application security risks, CISOs often need to assess the costs of fixing known vulnerabilities and adoption of new countermeasures and to consider the risk mitigation benefits of doing so. Costs vs. benefits trade offs are critical to decide on which application security measures and security controls to invest in to reduce the level of risk. Often CISOs need to explain to executive management the risks to applications and to articulate the potential business impacts for the organization in case applications are attacked and confidential data is breached. Security risks are business risks only when all three risk characteristics exist:
- Viable threat
- Vulnerability that may be exposed
- Asset of value
To systematically prioritize risks for investment, CISOs should consider a risk scoring methodology known as the Common Vulnerability Scoring System Version 2.0 (CVSSv2). To help regularly communicate application risk to the business executives, CISOs may consider providing “emerging cyber-threat awareness” reports to executive management. Once application security and software security investments are made, it is important for CISOs to measure and report the status of governance, risk and compliance of the application security program to Executive Management. Furthermore, CISOs need to show the effectiveness of the application security program investment and its impact on business risk.
- Vulnerability risk management metrics - What is the Mean Time to Repair on an annual basis? On a monthly basis? By application? By division? What are the known security issues in production?
- Security incident metrics - What security issues have been exploited? Were they known issues that were released in production? What was the cost to the business?
- Threat intelligence reporting and attack monitoring metrics - Which applications are receiving more attacks than others? Which applications have upcoming expected peak usage?
Security in the SDLC metrics
One often neglected aspect when spending on software security is the economics of dealing with insecure software applications. The investment in software security to identify and fix security issues prior to release of software in production actually pays for itself because it saves the organization money. Patching vulnerabilities after applications are released into production is very expensive; it is much cheaper than to invest in secure architecture reviews to identify design flaws and remediate them prior to coding, as well as to invest in secure code reviews to identify and fix security bugs in software during coding, and to ensure that releases are configured correctly.
- Metrics for risk mitigation decisions - What is the Mean Time to Repair by an application's risk category? Does it meet expectations? What is the risk heat map by application? By division? By channel?
- Metrics for vulnerability root causes identification - What are the root causes of vulnerabilities for each application? Is there a systemic issue? Which security practices have been best adopted by each development team? Which development teams need more attention?
- Metrics for software security investments - Which SDLC phase have identified the most security issues? What is the maturity of the corresponding security practices in each SDLC phase? What is the urgency for more security people, process, and technologies in each SDLC phase? What are the cost-savings between security testing versus downstream vulnerability penetration testing? What are the cost-savings between issues identified in each phase?
Handling Application Changes Due to Integration With Emerging Technologies
New application technologies and platforms such as mobile applications, Web 2.0, and cloud computing services offer different threats and countermeasure techniques. Changes to applications are also a source of potential risks, especially when new or different technologies are integrated within applications. As applications evolve by offering new services to citizens, clients, customers and employees, it is also necessary to plan for mitigation of new vulnerabilities introduced by the adoption and implementation of new technologies such as mobile devices, web 2.0 and new services such as cloud computing. Adopting a risk framework to evaluate the risks introduced by new technologies is essential to determine which countermeasures to adopt to mitigate these new risks. This guide will provide guidance for CISOs on how to mitigate risks of new threats against applications, as well as of vulnerabilities that might be introduced by the implementation of new technologies.
- Mobile applications
- Example concerns: lost or stolen devices, malware, multi-communication channel exposure, weak authentication
- Example CISO actions: Meeting mobile security standards, tailoring security audits to assess mobile application vulnerabilities, secure provisioning, and application data on personal devices.
- Web 2.0
- Example concerns: securing social media, content management, security of third party technologies and services
- Example CISO actions: security API, CAPTCHA, unique security tokens in form posts, and transaction approval workflows.
- Cloud computing services
- Example concerns: multi-tenant deployments, security of cloud computing deployments, third party risk, data breaches, denial of service malicious insiders
- Example CISO actions: cloud computing security assessment, compliance-audit assessment on cloud computing providers, due diligence, encryption in transit and at rest, and monitoring.
Today's threat agents seek financial gain such as by attacking applications to compromise users' sensitive data and company’s proprietary information for financial gain, fraud as well as for competitive advantage (e.g. through cyber espionage). To mitigate the risks posed by these threat agents, it is necessary to determine the risk exposure and factor the probability and the impact of these threats as well as to identify the type of application vulnerabilities that can be exploited by these threat agents. The exploit of some of these application vulnerabilities might severely and negatively impact the organization and jeopardize the business.
Highlighting Issues and Concerns Based Upon Metrics and Measurements
- Focus on positive highlighting the benefits (e.g. security vulnerabilities are identified and prioritised for remediation timely)
- Discuss possible causes for program execution stalling with stakeholders and try to address the concerns
- Fight common misconceptions that software security impacts cost/budget, development releases and performance
- Adress push backs from developers that are tired to rebuild software for fixing vulnerabilities, project managers that worry about delay of releases for products, CISOs that worry about releasing with vulnerabilities not remediated and business that worry about staying within budget constraints as well as that want to see value on investment
Part IV: How to Improve Application Security Program(s)
- increase or re-state commitment from business sponsors to support the program and to provide budget increase
- Incorporating the lesson learned from security incidents and released vulnerabilities/exploits
- Incorporating feedback from business and from software development units
- Efficient use of tools and focus on optimisation available manual resources
- Increase focus on automation for processes including security tools for vulnerability testing
- Automated source code validation and audits of false positives in reports
- Real time protection and detection with instrumentation
- Continuous Integration & Development Security Improvements
- Following the application security strategy goals
- Focus on identity and remediate vulnerabilities early during the SDLC
- Improve the maturity of execution of software security activities
- Promote benchmarking measures for process improvements
- Measure both threat risk levels and vulnerability risks
- Institute escalation procedures for problems
- Nurture security champions/evangelists
- Accountability and responsibility
- Focus on motivations to do better including awards and incentives